CHILD HEALTH PROMOTIONAL TIPS
Child health——Children represent the future and ensuring their healthy growth and development ought to be a prime concern of all societies. They are vulnerable to infectious disease and malnutrition of which most can be prevented. Most parents know the basics of keeping children healthy but there are many more to know.
- Follow feeding recommendations for the child’s age, but give small frequent meals (at least 6 times a day).
- Give a sugar-salt solution (SSS) in addition to feeds. Give SSS after each loose stool, using frequent small sips from a cup (half cup for children under 2 years and 1 cup for children 2-5 years). If the child vomits, wait for 10 minutes then continue, but more slowly.
- Other foods or fluids may damage a young baby’s gut and make it easy for infections to get into the baby’s body.
- Exclusive breastfeeding decreases the risk of diarrhea
- It decreases risk of respiratory infections
- It decreases the risk of allergies.
- If you have chosen to formula feed your baby, discuss safe preparation and use with the health care worker.
From birth to 6 months
- Start breastfeeding as soon as the baby is born. A baby is usually alert after birth and will spontaneously seek the breast if left undisturbed in skin-to-skin contact with their mother’s body.
- Breastfeed exclusively. Give your infant only breast milk and no other liquid or solids, not even water, with exception of drops of drops or syrup consisting of vitamins, mineral supplements or medication.
- Breastfeed as often as the child wants, day and night.
- When away from the child leave expressed breast milk to feed with cup.
- Avoid using bottles or artificial teats or dummies as this may interfere with suckling, be difficult to clean and may carry germs that can make the baby sick.
6 to 12 months
Start complementary foods at 6 months for all children
- Continue breast feeding.
- Always breastfeed first before giving complementary foods.
- Start giving 2-3 teaspoons of local animal foods available to you to supplement the iron in the breast milk. Examples include egg yolk, fish, minced meat, chicken/chicken liver, give mashed vegetables and then fruits.
- Increase the amount and frequency of feeds gradually.
- Offer your baby safe and clean water regularly.
- If the baby is not breastfed, give formula (check the advantage of breast milk over infant formula above)
12 months up to 5 years
- If the child is breastfed, continue breastfeeding as often as the child wants until the child is 2 years and beyond.
- Encourage children to eat a variety of foods.
- Feed your children five small meals a day.
- Give foods rich in iron and vitamin A and C
Iron-rich foods: Liver, kidney, dark green leafy vegetables, egg yolk, beans, fortified cereal.
Vitamin A-rich foods: Liver, dark green leafy vegetables, mango, paw paw, yellow sweet potato, full cream milk.
Vitamin C-rich foods: Citrus fruit, tomatoes.
- Encourage children to be active every day.
Child developmental screening table
|Vision and Adaptive||Hearing and Communication||Motor Development|
|ALWAYS ASK||Can your child see?||Can your child hear and communicate like other children?||Does your child do the same things as other children of the same age?|
|14 weeks||Baby follows close objects with eyes||Baby respond to sound by stopping sucking, blinking or turning||Child lifts head when held against shoulder|
|6 months||Baby recognizes familiar faces||Child turn head to look for sound||Child holds a toy in each hand|
|9 months||Child’s eyes focus on far objects
Eyes move well together
|Child turns when called||Child sits and plays without support|
|18 months||Child looks at small things and pictures||Child points to 3 simple objects
Child uses at least 3 words other than names
Child understands simple commands
|Child walks well
Uses fingers to feed
|3 years||Sees small shapes clearly at 6 metres||Child speaks in 3 words sentences||Child runs well and climbs on things|
|5 to 6 years||Should not have problem with vision||Speaks in full sentences and interact with children and adults||Hops on one foot
Able to draw a stick person
|Refer your child to the next level of care if the child has not achieved the developmental milestone|
Important reasons to vaccinate your child
child vaccination is the most effective public health intervention. The primary benefit of
vaccination is that it prevents disease and confers immunity. Vaccination protects the people
we care about; it is cost-effective and saves lives. Vaccination is not just a personal choice. Parents who choose not to vaccinate their children expose the entire family and community to the risk of disease outbreaks.
Immunizations protect us from serious diseases and also prevent the spread of those diseases to others. Over the years immunizations have thwarted epidemics of once common infectious diseases such as measles, mumps, and whooping cough. And because of immunizations we’ve seen the near eradication of others, such as polio and smallpox.
According to the World Health Organisation, immunization prevents between two and three million deaths around the world, annually. When you vaccinate a child against a disease, you teach the immune system by mimicking a natural infection. The body cannot tell that the vaccine virus is weakened, and it engulfs the virus as if it were dangerous. It then creates antibodies to fight the disease, quickly clearing the virus. What remains is a series of cells designed to fight against future infection. Should your child come into contact with the disease for real, their immune system is able to respond effectively, preventing the disease developing or greatly reducing its severity.
Make the right decision today.
Vaccination Schedule from birth
|AGE||DISEASE PROTECTED AGAINST||VACCINE GIVEN||SITE|
|AT birth||Hepatitis B Polio Tuberculosis||HPV 1 (Hepatitis B vaccine) OPV 0 (Oral polio vaccine) BCG (Bacilli Calmette Guerin- tuberculosis vaccine)||Upper part of the Thigh Oral Upper left arm|
|6 weeks||Polio DPT, Hepatitis B, HIB Rotavirus Otitis media and pneumonia||OPV 1 Pentavalent 1 Rotarix 1 Synoflorix 1 orPrevener 13||Oral Right Upper part of the thighOral Left upper part of the thigh|
|10 weeks||Polio DPT, Hepatitis B, HIB Rotavirus Otitis media and pneumonia||OPV 2 Pentavalent 2 Rotarix 2 Synoflorix 2 orPrevener 13||Oral Right Upper part of the thighOral Left upper part of the thigh|
|14 weeks||Polio DPT, Hepatitis B, HIB Otitis media and pneumonia||OPV 3 Pentavalent 3 Synoflorix 3 orPrevener 13||Oral Right Upper part of the thigh Left upper part of the thigh|
|6 months||Vitamin A deficiency||Ist dose of vitamin A||oral|
|9 months||Measles 1 Yellow fever||Measles vaccine Yellow fever vaccine||Right or left upper arm Right or left upper arm|
|12 to 18 months||DTap-IPV-Hib4 measles||Left upper am Right upper arm|
|18 months onward||Vaccination to be given is usually announced|
……always make informed healthy decisions
Diarrhoea causes many deaths in children under age 5, Diarrhoea accounts for 1.8 million deaths in children in low‐ and middle‐income countries (LMICs). One of the identified strategies to prevent diarrhoea is hand washing mostly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Hand washing after defecation, after cleaning a baby’s bottom, and before preparing and eating food can reduce the risk of diarrhoea.
Many diseases and conditions are spread by not washing hands with soap and clean, running water. If clean, running water is not accessible, as is common in many parts of the world, use soap and available water. If soap and water are unavailable, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol to clean hands.
HANDS SHOULD BE WASHED:
- Before, during, and after preparing food
- Before eating food
- Before and after caring for someone who is sick
- Before and after treating a cut or wound
- After using the toilet
- After changing diapers or cleaning up a child who has used the toilet
- After blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing
- After touching an animal, animal feed, or animal waste
- After handling pet food or pet treats
- After touching garbage.
HOW TO WASH HANDS CLEAN
- Wetyour hands with clean, running water (warm or cold), turn off the tap, and apply soap.
- Latheryour hands by rubbing them together with the soap. Be sure to lather the backs of your hands, between your fingers, and under your nails.
- Scrubyour hands for at least 20 seconds.
- Rinseyour hands well under clean, running water.
- Dryyour hands using a clean towel or air dry them.
WHAT IF I DON’T HAVE SOAP?
Washing hands with soap and water is the best way to reduce the number of germs on them in most situations. If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers can quickly reduce the number of germs on hands in some situations, but sanitizers do not eliminate all types of germs and might not remove harmful chemicals.
PLEASE NOTE: Hand sanitizers are not as effective when hands are visibly dirty or greasy.
HOW DO I USE HAND SANITIZERS?
- Apply the product to the palm of one hand (read the label to learn the correct amount).
- Rub your hands together.
- Rub the product over all surfaces of your hands and fingers until your hands are dry.
ALWAYS KEEP YOUR HANDS CLEAN